Sunday, February 23, 2020

Critical review of benefit estimation and sensitivity and risk Literature

Critical of benefit estimation and sensitivity and risk analysis in relation to road projects - Literature review Example Financial benefits cover only monetary benefits while economic benefits cover both financial and non-financial. Economic benefits are also called social benefits. In general, one can assert that that there are no big issues with regard to monetary benefits estimation. However, estimation of economic benefits can be problematic. Estimation of economic benefits can be described as valuation. A distinct approach to valuation of projects and initiatives is one by Musgrave and Musgrave (1989, p. 137-143). In Musgrave and Musgrave’s approach, the value of projects and initiatives can be assessed based on gross benefits and costs. Based on gross benefits and costs, some of the fundamental measures that can be used to assess the value of a project or initiative can be the present value of net benefits, benefit-cost ratio, and internal rate of return. Other supplementary measures that can be used are measures such as the payback period. Lately, however, the World Bank has been reported to be shying away from these measures and have emphasized instead on the need to focus on objectives, particularly in defining and justifying objectives, and pointing out that a project or initiative is the least cost way of attaining the objectives (McElhinny 2010, p. 1). Nevertheless, economic benefit-cost analysis is still widely used by many countries of Europe (Odgaard et al. 2005, p. 18). Government agencies of the United States still use cost-benefit or benefit-cost analyses (Federal Emergency Management Agency 2006). Project proponents of the Asian Development Bank continue to use cost-benefit analysis to highlight the merit or lack of merit of a proposed project or activity (Infrastructure Professionals Enterprise Private Limited and Tamil Nadu Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited 2009, p. 21-27). In the United Kingdom, however, His Majesty’s Treasury (2005, p. 47) expressed a preference for cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) in which the objectives may be qualitative targets vis-a-vis the emphasis of cost-benefit or benefit-cost analysis on monetized values. An approach to appraisal that emphasizes on objectives like the CEA is the 2007 Asian Development Bank interim guidelines for enhancing poverty reduction impact of road construction projects (Kafle 2007). Musgrave and Musgrave (1989, p. 137-143) pointed out that benefits and costs can be real or pecuniary, direct or indirect, tangible or intangible, and inside or outside. Economic benefit assessments consider on real benefits and costs. Further, what differentiates economic from financial valuation is the inclusion of intangibles in the former while the latter consider only items that are tangible or those that have immediate monetary values in the market. The approach of Musgrave and Musgrave (1989) differs in a major way from the perspective of Stiglitz (2000) on economic valuation. Like Stiglitz, Musgrave and Musgrave attempt to assign or provide monetary estimates on intangi bles. However, unlike Stiglitz, Musgrave and Musgrave concede that there intangibles in which assignment or estimation of monetary values are inappropriate (1989, p. 140) and points that the political process can make the decision on the provision of the good or execution of the initiative. In contrast, the perspective of Stiglitz (2000, p. 274) insists that values should be monetized. The Stiglitz framework is clear based on how he defined economic valuation, which is â€Å"developing systematic ways of analyzing costs and benefits when

Friday, February 7, 2020

Community Impact And Practice Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Community Impact And Practice - Research Paper Example Reflective practice as a concept has been extensively used as applied to education for a considerable amount of time. Its success in education has seen it being adopted by health workers and other professionals over time. This has played a pivotal role in causing reflective practice to become widely regarded as being one of the key defining features marking competence. There are a number of different Reflective Practice models available and their use and applicability is seen to be largely varied from one organization or writer to the next one (Smith and Roberts, 2011). The different models of reflective practice in use have caused what is understood to be reflective practice to be quite different within a number of different disciplines and intellectual traditions. It is now quite common to find a number of multiple and contradictory understandings of what exactly are reflective practice within the very same discipline. ... In addition to the examination of the assumptions made in everyday practice, Engaging in reflective practice is also seen to generally involve causing the individual practitioner to become self-aware and resort to critically evaluating their very own responses to the practice situations. The main objective of this is to attempt to recapture practice experiences and subsequently mull them over so as to be able to gain relevant new understandings and consequently be in a general position to improve future practice. 1.1.1 Importance of Reflective Practice Reflective practice is generally promoted as being a key element in the general delivery of effective services to the rather diverse populations of children, infants and families. Reflective practice has been touted as improving the engagement with clients as well as aiding practitioners in seeing a number of strengths and differences that they might normally not be able to perceive ( 2013). It helps individuals access the â€Å"how† of how things are supposed to be done and includes both the unspoken and spoken processes. Reflective practice has been variously described as being the bridge from theory to practice (Hirst, 2005) as it offers processes that aid its various practitioners in taking concepts that they happen to believe and know and effectively apply them to the myriad real-life situations that are normally seen to be fraught with complexity. 1.1.2 Reflective Practice in the Enhancement of CPD and PDP The population changes seen to be affecting most of Europe and the United States that have mainly resulted in an increasingly aging workforce and ever decreasing pool of highly qualified professional talent is seen to be critically affecting the modern day workforce. It is

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Acids and Alkalis Lab Report Essay Example for Free

Acids and Alkalis Lab Report Essay An acid is a group of chemicals. Acids are positively charged ions, they are liquid and are solutions of pure compounds in water. If you want to know if something is an acid, you can test it by using litmus paper. Acids will turn litmus paper red, whilst alkalis will turn it blue. Alkalis are negatively charged ions and are usually solid. Aim:To find out how much of different acids is needed to neutralize 25mls of sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH). Hypothesis:The strongest alkali will need the smallest amount of an acid to cancel out and the weakest will need more acid. Variables: Control| Independent| Dependent| The indicator, NaOH| H2SO4 HClHNO3| The chemical reaction between the acids and alkali. | Materials / Apparatus: * H2SO4 * HCL * HNO3 * Alkali (NaOH) * Stand * Burette * Beaker * Funnel * Bunsen Burner * Crucible * Phenolphyalein Method: 1. Pour the 25 ml of NaOH into a beaker. 2. Drop three drops of phenolphyalein into the beaker. 3. The solution will now turn pink. . Through a funnel, pour the acid into the burette. Start dripping a few drops one by one into the beaker. 6. The solution will start getting a lighter shade of pink. 7. Stir the beaker around. 8. Once the solution turns clear, stop adding more acid. 9. Calculate the amount of acid used. 10. Take the solution and pour a bit of it into a crucible. 11. Light the Bunsen burner. 12. The salt solution will turn into salt crystals when it is heated. NaOH + HCl = NaCl + H2O NaOH + HNO3 = NaNO3 NaOH + H2SO4 = Na2SO4 + 2H2O Observations: Alkali| Acid| Moles| Observation| NaOH| HCL| 1 Mole| Took 4 ml to neutralize. No further experiment was made. | NaOH| HCL| 0. 1 Mole| Took 31 ml to neutralize. 2. 30 minutes until pink salt crystals were formed. | NaOH| HNO3| 1 Mole| Took 19. 2 ml to neutralize. 2 minutes until good white salt crystals were formed. | NaOH| H2SO4| 2 Moles| Took 1. 1 ml to neutralize. 2. 15 minutes until rings of white salt were formed. | Analysis: The weakest acid (HCl 0. 1 Mole) needed the most alkali to be made into salt and the strongest (H2SO4 2 Moles) needed the least. Different experiments made different salts. Conclusion: The strongest acid will work faster and you will need less. This is because it is a lot more reactive than the weaker acids and it will want to react much faster with the alkali. Evaluation: In my group, Zuzanna and I were the ones doing the experiment while everyone else observed and took notes on what happened. The first time, we dropped one too many drops of H2SO4 in the alkali so the alkali quickly turned pink again. We had to try it six times before we could get it right because we kept putting too much in or we would forget how much we put in. But after a few tries we finally got it to work and we got the correct solution. Therefore we could finally go on to the next step and heat up the solution. It took our salt around 2 minutes and 15 seconds to heat up, evaporate and leave us with small rings of white salt crystals. Our salt crystals did not turn out as the best, but they were successful.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Technology and Individualization in Education Essay -- Technological I

Technology and Individualization in Education Technology is a major influential factor in the progression of education. Technology has allowed for many positive advances in education, allowing for more efficient, more individualized learning. The introduction of computers in education has provided countless benefits to students, and enhanced learning greatly. Students now have a much broader wealth of information in which they can get knowledge from, and more specialized learning. Education will continue to be benefited by technology as progression continues. Individualization in education should be an ultimate goal, and this can only be achieved through technology. Technology should continue to be an influential factor in education. Computers have been the most influential form of technology to affect education. Many experts are critical of computers in the classroom. Dennis Gooler suggests that computers institute a gender gap, and that serious questions need to be addressed before computers are allowed in classrooms. He says that boys are much more inclined to use computers, and that girls will be left behind in the technology craze. I think that the way to solve this problem is to have computers in schools and promote their use by both genders. Computers allow for students to learn individually, and to gain access to a plethora of knowledge that has recently become accessible. There are many ways that computers have benefited learning. Studies have proven that computers in the classroom cause students to get better grades, because their learning is based on personal learning styles. Before computers were invented, all papers had to b e typed out in typewriters. Computers have made typing papers much easie... ...ucation. Our society is in a constant state of progression through technology, and it is only right that education is included. Education is positively effected by technology in many ways, and will continue to be benefited, until individualized education is achieved. Advancement occurs all throughout the Bible, and the importance of education is stressed. I believe that God is pleased when the two come together for an advantageous outcome. Works Cited 1) Gooler, Dennis D. â€Å"Computers in the Classroom: What is the effect on the Gender Gap?† Stanford March 1998: 1-10. 9 November 2001.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Memorable and Striking Essay

How Charles Dickens Creates Characters That Are Both Memorable and Striking  One of Charles Dickens’ greatest strengths is his ability to create characters that are both believable and memorable. Dickens appealed to all classes of society: to intellectuals and simple folk alike. In ‘Great Expectations’, which was published as a weekly serial, examples of his strengths fill the novel, and this is perhaps why ‘Great Expectations’ has remained as popular now as it was when it was first written. It was not until 1823 that Charles and his family moved to London from Portsmouth. Up until this time he had a happy family life and was doing well at school, already he was a great reader. However life in London was very different, the family had no money, Dickens could not go to school and his father was imprisoned for debt. At the age of eleven he had to work in a shoe-blacking factory and this left a long lasting impression. This experience was relatively short-lived, the family situation improved and he was able to return back to school from there to working in a lawyers office, teaching himself shorthand. By the age of twenty he had become an established newspaper reporter and started to write short stories in his spare time as well as directing and acting in amateur dramatics. Even by his mid twenty’s Dickens’ ability to absorb and portray information was remarkable. Partly due to his tremendous literacy knowledge (for example he read Defoe, Fielding when he was very young) and also as a result of his employment (he frequently reported on Parliament for example) he was able to use his detailed knowledge of London life and people in his writing.  In this essay I intend to discuss the characters of Pip, Joe Gargery, Miss Havisham and Abel Magwitch, because I think these four between them demonstrate Dickens’s expertise at blending character, plot and setting within the novel. One of the techniques that Dickens uses is first person narrative. The book is written from the point of view of Pip who narrates using personal pronouns such as ‘me’ and ‘I’. This technique is effective because it shows the viewpoint of a character (namely Pip) who is able to use personal details and clearly describes surroundings.  Pip is the person on whom the whole novel revolves; the novel starts and ends with Pip. The dictionary’s definition of a pip is ‘ a small hard seed of an apple, pear or orange’. This is relevant to Pip in a way because he is a person who should develop or grow from a ‘small bundle of shivers.’ However, his circumstances at the beginning of the novel give us the impression that this will not allow him to develop. During Pip’s early childhood, he is unjustly suppressed and bullied by his sister, and to a lesser degree, by Pumblechook at the Christmas dinner and the rest of the village.  Ã¢â‚¬Å"You would have been disposed of for many shillings†¦and Dunstable the butcher would have come up to you as you lay in your straw,†Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"You come along and be dosed.†Ã‚  Pip is regularly fed tar water for any simple wrongdoing by his sister who also chastises him regularly with the ironically named ‘Tickler’. Although Pip has the friendship of his brother-in law Joe, this is not enough to stop him developing into a timid, undernourished yet sensitive child. Pip next has pressure put upon him when he goes to Satis House and has his first encounter with Estella and Miss Havisham. Pip’s overwhelming love for Estella and his change in attitude and behaviour towards others hide the real values of life. He becomes ungrateful to Joe and from time to time, his conscience tells him he has behaved badly but finds it difficult to change. It is quite easy to criticise Pip for his change of feeling towards his life long friend Joe, but we must understand that he has been deeply affected by the bullying which he had suffered in his early years at the hands of his dominating sister, as well as his need to improve his life-style. Pip is also rather gullible, we can see this in his encounter with the convict – he really believes that the convict namely Magwitch will tear his liver out; this is because of the atmosphere of death in the graveyard. Also the way that Magwitch speaks in his rough and raspy voice.  When Pip meets Estella, he is taken in by her charms. For the first time he becomes aware of the social differences and background between them. This makes him feel dissatisfied with his life, he feels ashamed of his home, of his ‘coarse hands’ and ‘thick boots’ and the first realisation that life could be better enters his mind. Unfortunately Pip becomes rather distant from his peers and when he finds out he is to come into fortune (his ‘Great Expectations’), he is quick to drop his childhood friends and family in case they embarrass him. Although sometimes he feels guilty about this, he still acts this way. Moving to London and meeting Herbert Pocket again inspires Pip to be more like him, a young gentleman.  However, Pip leaves behind one of the only true gentlemen in the novel Joe Gargery is a blacksmith who is married to Pip’s sister.  Ã¢â‚¬Å"A giant of a man, with fair hair curly hair and mild blue eyes.†Ã‚  Joe is an honest, kind and simple man who becomes a father figure to Pip. Throughout the novel he is one of, the few characters who does not really change. Joe shows the dignity and strength of a gentleman as he is still loyal to Pip, despite Pip’s neglect of Joe. He is able to accept his wife’s harsh personality without showing his true feelings and he finds it difficult to stand up to her strong will. Although partly educated, he is always willing to learn, and is very proud at Pip’s good fortune, and is happy to stay in the background whilst Pip is in London receiving his training to ‘become a gentleman’. Miss Havisham is a bitter old woman whose heart and mind are as decaying as the house in which she lives. When Pip first meets Miss Havisham ‘†¦the strangest lady I have ever seen†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ she is wearing ancient yellowed bridal clothes and he notices that everything in the room is gloomy, faded and old. All the clocks and her watch have stopped at eight forty am. ‘I saw that the bride within the bridal dress had withered like the dress†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Erik Erikson s Developmental Theory Essay - 1628 Words

Firstname Lastname Instructor’s Name Course Number Date Erik Erikson Developmental Theory Erik Erikson is a famous German-born American psychologist, who developed his own psychoanalytical developmental theory. This developmental theory was aimed to identify the steps a developing human should to pass from infancy to adulthood. Erikson identified eight steps of the psychological development. The ideas of Erikson were heavily influenced by an Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, who also analyzed the human psychological development and identified psychosexual stages of development. However, Erikson did not emphasize the predominant role of sexual development in psychological development. He argued that the role of culture and society on a human was the most significant factor which through the evolution separated human psychological development from the development of animals. Erikson writes that there are conflicts which take place within ego and they are usually caused by external factors (society, culture, etc.) Thus, according to Eriks on, a human successfully completes the stage when he resolves the main conflict within his ego. (McLeod) Erikson develops his ideas basing on the idea that biological and social nature coexist in each person and each psychological crisis at the end of each life stage reveals a conflict between social and biological forces of a human. Reconciliation of these two identities leads to the harmonious psychological development. On the otherShow MoreRelatedSigmund Freud And Erik Erikson1110 Words   |  5 Pagespredominantly attained by parents of children with emotional problems 70- 80 decades ago. The discontinuous psychosexual and psychosocial theory takes place in stages in one course moving through drives that are biological along with societal expectations (Berk, 2013). The contributions to this perspective include both Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson. Freud examined psychosexual theory and how those first childhood years of drives shape the personality. Thus, such drive names are t he id, ego, and superego. TheRead MoreErik Erikson s Stages Of Development1608 Words   |  7 Pages The Psychosocial Development The View on Erik H. Erikson s Stages of Development Frank Phan Cosumnes River College Psychology 300 Abstract This paper will touch over the aspects of Erik H Erickson s eight stages and how they affect everyday lives from infancy to adulthood. The paper will go over the approximate ages and the psychosocial crisis that they will eventually come to. Neglecting a child can lead to a cause of mental negligence in the form of Arrested Development. Within differentRead MoreAnalysis Of Eriksons Theory On Early Childhood Education1212 Words   |  5 Pagesthe education profession. Erik Erikson Hope is both the earliest and the most indispensable virtue inherent in the state of being alive. If life is to be sustained hope must remain, even where confidence is wounded, trust impaired. - Erik Erikson Erik Erikson (1902-1994) was a Germon born developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychosocial development of human lie. He is most famous for devising the phrase â€Å"identity crisis.† Erikson was a Harvard professor althoughRead MoreErik Erikson s Psychosocial Theory On Child Development1388 Words   |  6 PagesErik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory on Child Development Erik Erikson, a well known developmental theorist, developed his theory about stages of human development from birth to death by using Freud s work as a starting point. According to Erikson, personality develops in a series of stages. Erikson found out that children experience conflicts which affect their development. He described the internal conflict which children go through in developmental stages using the term ‘crisis’ and are based onRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Mcadams 1154 Words   |  5 Pagesthis article McAdams, the author guides the reader through the life stories of different psychologists , he provide a real recollection of life stories and narrative approaches that recent researcher and theories have apply to understand human behavior. This article integrates recent theories and researchers of life stories as illustrated the investigation of self-understanding, personal memory, personality structure and change, and the relations between the personal lives and cultural. The articleRead MoreThe Eight Crisis Stages Of Erik Erikson Development Theory1456 Words   |  6 PagesA theory is defined by an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that help to explain phenomena and facilitate predictions. With development the series of age-related changes that happen over the course of a life span which theorist observe these developments as a series of stages during which individuals displays qualities of behavior patterns. There are five theoretical orientation to development such as psychoanalytic, cognitive, behavioral and social cognitive, ethological, and ecologicalRead MoreEarly Life Experiences Impact The Person Across Their Lifespan930 Words   |  4 PagesPiaget theory ‘Stages of cognitive development’ (1936) and Erik Erikson theory ‘Psychosocial stages’ (1950). Piaget argued that children develop knowledge by constructing their experience and observe with their own ideas about how the thing works.(Bur ton, L.J., Westen, d. Kowalski, R.M. 2015) He developed 4 stages of his theory: Sensorimotor Stage, Preoperational Stage, Concrete Operational Stage and Formal Operational Stage. At the same time, Erik Erikson proposed a psychoanalytic theory of psychosocialRead MoreCompare and contrast the developmental life span theories742 Words   |  3 Pagesdevelopmentalist focus on nature and nurture in the development of children. Bronfenbrenner’s theory is based on a child’s state of affairs and circumstances. The key idea in Erik Erikson’s theory is that the individual faces a conflict at each stage which may or may not within that stage. Erik Erikson was a psychologist who was most famous for coining the phases of identity crisis. Accordant to Erikson, the ego develops as it successfully resolves crises that are distinctly social in nature. TheseRead MoreErik Erikson s Psychosocial Development Theory1518 Words   |  7 PagesABSTRACT This research paper will show a thorough review of Erik Erikson s Psychosocial Development Theory, specifically the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Psychosocial Development, according to Erik Erikson, is a continuity of crisis throughout our lifespan; these challenges will shape our personality and the way we perceive our surroundings. In addition to this, the different stages mentioned in this Theory complement each other and help us to develop the tools to achieve a sense ofRead MoreDevelopmental Psychologist Erik Erikson s Stages Of Psychosocial Development1729 Words   |  7 PagesDevelopmental psychologist Erik Erikson changed the way that people viewed the psychosocial development in humans throughout their lifespan. Using the foundation provided by Freud’s psychosexual stages, he modified the concepts to where they demonstrated external impacts on development as well as making it more about emotional conflicts than necessarily physical drives. This eight-stag e theory is sequential, and requires the person to overcome conflicts in each stage to become a productive member

Friday, December 27, 2019

Health Care Delivery System Of The United States - 877 Words

Health Care Delivery System The health care delivery system of the United States is unique compared to the other developed countries. The health care system of United States relies on the development and implementation of new health care technology. The use of new technology in the field of health care will help to provide services with increased quality and efficacy (Shi Singh, 2015). The external forces affecting the provision of health care delivery also has an inevitable role in the functioning of the system. The affordable care act (ACA) or â€Å"Obama Care† was signed into law by president Barack Obama on March 23, 2010 with the goal to give more Americans access to affordable, quality health insurance, and to reduce the growth in the U.S. health care spending (Ober Craven, 2010). Influence of Technology on Health Care Technology permeates every domain of critical care and has contributed to rising survival rates. The technological innovation grew out of boundaries, changing all industries involved. In health care, the advancement in science and technology play an important role in almost all process from patient registration to data monitoring, from lab tests to self-care. The emergence of electronic medical record system (EMR), portal technology, remote monitoring tools, wireless communication telemedicine, sensors and wearable technology, Pharmacogenomics are all examples of advancements in the health care that have emerged over the last few years. TheseShow MoreRelatedHealth Care Delivery System in the United States1327 Words   |  6 PagesHealth Care Delivery System in the United States Diana Horton Trident University Health Care Delivery Systems MHA507 Dr. Thomas Esch January 19, 2013 Health Care Delivery System in the United States Introduction: The problem: Access to health care physically and financially, healthcare system in today’s society has failed to provide quality care for the U.S. Americans. There are so many ways that the system falls short in providing proper care. The healthcare is mainly based on the governmentRead MoreHealth Care Delivery System in the United States1460 Words   |  6 PagesThe United States health care delivery system is comprised of a complex, unorganized and flawed health system, compared to that of Australia’s health care system. The four components of the inefficient system in the United States are categorized into a quad-functional model. 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Today, I will address the health care insurance I have, its products, source of my insurance, my out-of-pocket expenses, the level of coverage I receive with my plan, the major limitations to myRead MoreAdministrations Health Care Delivery System in the United States688 Words   |  3 PagesExamine the Administrations Health Care Delivery System in the United States Over the last several years, a wide variety of health care organizations have been facing a number of challenges. This is because of pressures associated with: rising costs, increasing demands and larger numbers of patients. For many facilities this has created a situation where patient safety issues are often overlooked. This is because the staff is facing tremendous amounts of pressure, long hours and more patientsRead MoreHealth Care Delivery System Throughout The United States1891 Words   |  8 PagesHealth Care Delivery System in the United States Healthcare is a hot topic for all Americans and everyone has their own views on how the healthcare system should run. This includes the public and the politicians. Today we are going to address issues in the United States healthcare system including access to care for both physical and financial reasons, how payment for care runs the industry, and quality of care in the aspects of internal factors including: public insurance plans, and private insuranceRead MoreObservations And Analysis Of The United States Health Care Delivery System1403 Words   |  6 Pagesand analysis of the comparison: The Matrix tells that the US health care delivery system that (The process that enables people to receive health care or the provision of health care services to patients) is complex and massive, and despite the uniqueness of the US health care delivery system, but it lacks the universal access (no national health care program); therefore, not all population has continuous and comprehensive health care. 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In spite of the role of the federal government as the sole main player for the health care, no set of policies or national identity to guide the health care system. The majority of developed nations, unlike the United States, have nationwide health insuranceRead MoreHealth Care Vs. Healthcare System1052 Words   |  5 Pages Body system requires functioning well in order to be active to perform daily living activities. Unfortunately, there are many health related issues and diseases that have been serious challenges to human kind. Diseases such as cancer, HIV, chronic illnesses, unpredicted accidents, and many others have been unavoidable situation for some people. Each ethnicity groups also are genetically tied to a certain type of illnesses. Poverty and lack of education play a major role in these health issuesRead MoreTechnological Advances in the United S tates Healthcare1220 Words   |  5 PagesTechnological Advances Healthcare delivery in the United States has morphed through substantial changes over the years with most changes occurring as a result of technological advances in medicine. Though technological advances directly affect health care delivery in America, other factors affect it as well. As reported by Ball (2012), two of the earliest and most important technological advances that affected the system of health care delivery in the United States were the invention of the x-ray and